THE OLD SCHOOL OF THOUGHT ON ARCHIVING:
"Media deterioration" is the enemy of video data preservation; therefore,
- The longer the storage medium lasts,
- the longer the video master file will last.
To that end,
- Media Longevity was the focus of data preservation
- Media Protection and Isolation was part of that strategy
- Media and DATA were assumed to be bound to each other.
A "master" and a "backup" -- a "Static Archive" --
- in a lock-box
- was sufficient for most home movie archives.
THE PROBLEM WITH STATIC ARCHIVES:
"Technology Shifts" -- not "time" -- is the enemy of MEDIA.
Every Technology Shift
- make "archive" system an "archaic" system
- beyond functional use
- in only a relatively short periods of time
- sometimes before the media deteriorates.
For example DVD discs are going the way of CD discs.
For Example: Video Data:
- Streaming Video Downloads via Wireless Cloud technology is out dating
- Disc IMAGE™ Downloads via Wired Cloud technology (of late last decade) which outdated
- Physical DVD disc technology (of early last decade) which outdated
- Digital tape technology (of early last decade) which outdated
- Analogue tape technology (of last-quarter of the century) which outdated
- 8mm 16mm film technology (of the first 75 years of last century).
With ALL the physical technology shifts, video data itself is changing
- to accommodate the very big displays
- to accommodate the very fast transmission
- to accommodate the very small displays
- to accommodate playing the video
- to accommodate changing (editing) the video
- to accommodate duplicating the video
- to accommodate distributing the video
- to accommodate MANY VIDEO DEVICES
- there is literally an explosion -- of video data formats
- video data, once tied to a device (VHS, D8, DVD, MiniDV)
- is now Device-FREE™ video data
- AVAILIBLE to many devices
- "Video is now VIRTUAL-Data™"
THE NEW SCHOOL OF THOUGHT ON ARCHIVING:
Archive Technology Shift
In the last 10 years
- Data Longevity
- Is no longer bound to
- Media Longevity
Virtual Video� Data
- Video Data is Device-FREE™ (i.e., Device Independent)
- Making Video Data Cheap and Easy to Replicate
- Master Files in .mov and .avi containers
- have their own video controls -- just like "disc images".
- Media Players like QuickTime Player, Windows Media Player, and VideoLAN
- ALL play discs like files; and play files like discs.
- "Disc images" no longer need "physical discs" to play; and
- "Disc images" can play from any device or via the Internet Cloud
- All the above is "The NEW Virtual Reality of Video".
An Archive MUST be Virtual, too
That is to say, an Archive must be "Independent of Media".
An Archive must "facilitate" the NEW virtual reality of video data.
An Archive must be able to exist as a
- Solid State Drive,
- Hard Drive,
- Virtual Drive in "the cloud"
An Archive must be "Strategically Diverse" in video formats
- with video formats for HDTV
- with video formats for cell phones
- with video formats for editing
- with video formats for Social Media
- with video formats for creating 'media bound" products --
- like DVD discs
- like Blu-ray discs
- like MiniDV tapes
An Archive must be a "Means to Distribute Video" to Others
- "VERY EASY" and "VERY CHEAP" TO DUPLICATE
- the Archive itself
- or duplicate select volumes of the video library
- like making a Solid State DVD Library
- like making a Solid State MP4 Library
- like burning DVD discs
An Archive must be self-contained in Video Archive Management
- having an onboard browser compatible tutorial
- how to play library content
- how to burn discs
- how to duplicate the archive itself
- how to create solid state products
- how to distribute the archive among friends and family
- how to distribute video content to friends and family
- how to perpetuate the archive into the future
- having an onboard open source licensed media player
- to be shared without copyright violations
- to be where you need it; when you need it
- to be commonly available and known by all family members
- to be used to check the integrity of the video library periodically
- to be used to review footage before distributing it
- to be used to enjoy the video library without
You should always have at least 4 (four) mirror IMAGE™ copies of an archive -- at all time -- for all times to come -- to insure longevity.
We are the only Video Preservation company that has accomplished this challenge for our clients
in our product line marketed as Virtual-Home-Movies™ Video Library.
Recordable DVD Disc (Optical Disc) as an Archive Medium:
The ultimate authorities on the use of Recordable DVD discs as an archive medium is
- The National Archive and Records Administration (NARA) and
- The Library of Congress.
The following information is a "must read" to protect your home movies:
CONTROLS USDED IN THE NIST/LC OPTICAL DISC LONGEVITY STUDY:
QUALITY CONTROL TESTING CONDITIONS which included
- Pre-selection (method unknown) of 5 brands of DVD-R discs
- Within each brand, pre-testing and culling of each DVD-R disc to be use in study
- Buiding special "recording stations" -- calibrated to match pre-selected discs
- Maintaining and Re-calibrating each "recording station" as needed
- By a team of Engineers
Testing effects of only 2 aging factors
- Humidity Variations and
- Temperature Variations
- CAUSED NO DISCS TO FAIL
The Statistical Model Used showed a high probability of data longevity on the 5 brands of recordable DVD disc to be statistically as high as 45 years (Eyring Statiscical Years) -- only under the "Quality Control Testing Conditions" above.
REACTIONS TO THE NIST/LC STUDY:
- The Library of Congress (LC) and
- The National Archives and Record Administration (NARA)
REJECTED THE USE OF RECORDABLE CD/DVD DISCS FOR ARCHIVE PURPOSES.
ACTIONS SPEAK LOUDER THAN STATISTICS:
September 2007: The NIST / Library of Congress released the Final Report on the Optical Disc Longevity Study.
October 2007: Less that one month later, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) banned the use of recordable optical disc in NARA Departments stating (quotes from newsletter):
- CDs and DVDs are not an archival storage medium. Do not
rely on them to store permanent records.
- CDs and DVDs are made up of various layers of materials
and are subject to physical, mechanical, and chemical
changes that may render them unreadable in a relatively
short period of time.
- CD-R/DVD-R have an expected life expectancy of only 2-5 years, far shorter than the published claims of many manufacturers. Test them every 2 years to be sure they are still readable. Unrecorded CDs and DVDs (properly stored) have a useful shelf life of between 5 and 10 years.
The statement above was published as part of NARA's internal newsletter to their own departments.
National Archives: Current Public Advisory:
Recordable (DVD) optical media have widely varying life expectancies. It is not entirely uncommon for some discs to become unreadable in less than 1 year. Relying on recordable discs to last for generations is probably not viable.
Burned (recordable CD-R, DVD-R, BD-R) discs make use of an organic dye layer in order to record data and are typically less reliable because this dye is more susceptible to degradation over time. Recordable CDs, Blu-Rays, and DVDs have proven to be fairly unstable over time, and are deemed a bad choice for long-term preservation.
MORE SUPPORTING EVIDENCE:
The Relative Stabilities of Optical Disc Formats by Joe Iraci
RESTAURATOR: International Journal for the Preservation of Library and Archive Material Volume 26 - Number 2 - 2005
FINDINGS of RESTAURATOR Report:
The Relative Stabilities of Optical Disc Formats by Joe Iraci
(which I call, "The German / International Study")
Many types and brands were tested, however summary of ONLY DVD-R disc follows:
- 10 DVD-R discs brands tested -- repeated 4 times for each band -- (40 discs total)
- using DVD discs available "to general public" -- like you and I use;
- using DVD recorders available "available to general public" -- like you and I use.
DVD-R DISC RESULTS:
- 8% DVD-R discs survived (statistically 1 out of 12 discs survived) --
- Looking at this statistic another way, 92% died (on average 11 DVD discs out or every 12 died) "dead as a hammer" -- to paraphrase the "techno-talk!"
DVD-RW DISC RESULTS: 100% of all CD/DVD RW type discs failed -- "dead as a hammer".
THE METHOD OF TESTING: "Off-the-shelf" discs were subjected to Eyring Aging Model.
IMPORTANT NOTICE: The Iraci Study specifically did NOT express aging in terms of years -- stating that it was inappropriate to attempt to do so. This is a another major difference bettween the Iraci study and the NIST/LC Study.
THE BIG DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE 2 STUDIES:
The Method of Testing!
SUGGESTED READING: Lies, Darn Lies, and Statistics